DNA Full Form
DNA stand for the Deoxyribonucleic acid, the filamentous molecule found in the chromosomes of living cells is called DNA. DNA is shaped like a curved ladder and is found in every living organism. Genetic properties are present in DNA and DNA is essential for every living cell. DNA was discovered in the year 1953 by scientists James and Francis Crick and for this discovery they were also awarded the Nobel Prize in the year 1962. DNA is a molecule that contains the genetic code of all organisms. DNA is found in all living beings i.e. humans, plants, bacteria, animals, germs etc. DNA is found in almost every cell in our body except red blood cells. Every human receives 23 pairs of DNA from their parents, one from each pair by the mother and one by the father. That is, the DNA of any human being is made up of a mixture of the DNA of his parents. This is the reason that many characteristics of parents are found in the children like height, skin color, hair color, eyes etc. Human DNA has about 3 billion bases and it is 99.9 percent common in all humans, the remaining 0.01 percent makes all humans different from each other. You will be surprised to know that there is 98 percent similarity in the DNA of chimpanzee and human. DNA occupies a space of 0.09 micrometers in each cell. In 1 gram of DNA, 700 terabytes of information can be preserved and 2 grams of DNA can protect the Internet data of the whole world. DNA makes its own copy so that each new cell can get DNA at the time of every cell division. Every day from one thousand to one million DNAs are destroyed from our body. The information of all the species in the world can be saved in a spoonful of DNA.
DNA is transferred from one generation to another, through this information can be obtained about the change in the generation. Information is stored in cells for a long time by DNA. This information is used to find out many mysteries. By which information about the descendants is obtained. DNA contains a collection of genetic information, this collection is called a gene. With this, information about genetic information is obtained. It is through this that genetic traits are transferred from one generation to another.
Types of DNA
There are mainly three types of DNA found in organisms, it is as follows-
- A – DNA
- B – DNA
- Z – DNA
A-DNA:- In this type of DNA, the filaments on both sides are made of short, wide and small grooves, in which 10.9 / 11 base pair is found.
B – DNA:- In this type of DNA, the filaments on both sides are thin and long, its groove is deep and shallow, it has 10.9/11 base pair in each layer.
Z – DNA:- In this type of DNA, the filaments on both sides are thin and long, but the grooves are only deep. It is found like zigzag, hence they are called Z-DNA. 12 base pairs are found in each of its levels.